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Chronic Neuroimmune Diseases
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Last updated January 1, 2014

Gender Differences Affecting Health & Function


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The bottom line is that there is more to the diffrence between men and women than the obvious. Not only are we built differently, anatomically, but we have a significantly different array of hormones. Not that the hormones themselves are completely different, but the amounts, and how those amounts change month to month, and over the years, is. There is also differences in how males and females access, and have access to, medical care, how they deal with health care practitioners, and how health care practitioners deal with them. Then there's the fact that most drugs are tested on adult men and dosing is usually set based on that research. Given that about half the population is female, and most females are smaller than men (though some females may be larger than small men), this has historically led to patients being treated equally when they were anything but.

In fact, research is only now beginning to explore the biochemical and other differences that result in differences in the way males and females respond to infection, pain, drugs, and more. The articles and links at this page will touch upon some of the findings and resources available to those who wish to look at this issue further.

Immune System Response
Journals & Books
Additional Resources


Generally Gender
Yes, Biologically Speaking, Sex Does Matter
Male-Female Brain Differences
Sex differences in parasite infections: Patterns and processes
UCLA Study On Friendship Among Women


Gender and Drugs
Women and Psychopharmacology (PDF version)
The Mismeasure of Woman: Women and Clinical Trials
Gender Differences in Response to Drugs: Pain Medications


Gender and Pain
CA Senate Hearing on Gender Bias and Chronic Pain (Feb 2004)
Different Factors Influence Men's and Women's Risk for Developing Pain
National Institutes of Health Gender and Pain
Pain and Gender: Is there a difference?
Pain and the brain: Sex, hormones & genetics affect brain's pain control system
Puberty and Gender in Pain Responsitivity
Response To Pain Varies Between Sexes
Sex Differences in Chronic Widespread Pain and Fibromyalgia (PDF file)
The Puzzle of Gender and Pain
Women are the Hardier Sex When It Comes to Pain
Gender Differences in Brain Response to Pain


Gender and Immune System Response
Hormonal Changes During Physiological Development Can Alter Immune Response To Viruses And Infections


Gender and Disease
U-M study takes a closer look at polio's lifelong effects


Gender and Society
Survey Reveals Impact of Pain May Differ by Gender
Sen. Barbara Boxer (D-CA) Introduces Bill to Boost Research on Autoimmune Diseases in Women


Journals and Books
Journal of Gender-Specific Medicine
XX vs XY: Int'l Journal of Sex Differences in Health, Disease, & Aging
See Recommended Reading: Gender Differences in Health


Additional Resources
Society for Women's Health Research: Just the Facts

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